Zwangsräumung einer Wohnung

Dass Mieter nach dem deutschen Mietrecht eine starke Position haben ist bekannt und das ist auch gut so, denn schließlich hat das Bundesverfassungsgericht entschieden, dass das Recht des Mieters dem des Eigentum praktisch gleich steht (BVerfG NJW 1993, 2035). Die Entscheidung prägte den Begriff vom

Recht von eigentumsgleichem Rang.

Doch was kann man als Vermieter machen, wenn trotz rechtmäßiger Kündigung der Mieter die Schlüssel nicht herausgibt und sich weigert, die Wohnung freiwillig zu räumen? Wann kann er staatliche Hilfe in Anspruch nehmen und die Räumung zwangsweise durchsetzen, etwa gegen Mietnomaden. Und welche Besonderheiten müssen Vermieter auf dem schwierigen Hamburger Wohnungsmarkt beachteten?

Das Recht in die eigene Hand nehmen: Schlösser austauschen lassen?
In der Praxis sieht man leider immer wieder Fälle, in denen Vermieter das Recht in die eigene Hand nehmen und einfach den Schlüsseldienst in der Abwesenheit des Mieters die Schlösser austauschen lassen. Das ist nachvollziehbar, schließlich denkt der Eigentümer sich: Das ist meine Wohnung! Nach deutschem Mietrecht ist dies aber extrem gefährlich, denn dieses Vorgehen stellt nämlich eine Verbotene Eigenmacht nach § 857 BGB dar, gegen die der Mieter sich leicht und zügig im eistweiligen Rechtsschutz wehren kann. In dem Fall bleibt der Vermieter auf den Kosten für den Schlosser sitzen, muss die neuen Schlüssel an den Mieter herausgeben und zahlt zusätzlich noch die Gerichtskosten + ggf. das Honorar des Anwalts des Mieters. Vom Austausch der Schlösser ist daher dingend abzuraten.


Staatliches Gewaltmonopol: Zwangsvollstreckung mir Hilfe des Gerichtsvollziehers

Nach altem Recht war leider auch die rechtlich einzig gangbare Alternative, die Zwangsvollstreckung praktisch selten effektiv. Der Gerichtsvollzieher beauftragt in diesem Fall den Schlosser und veranlasst die Räumung der Wohnung durch private Unternehmen. Das Problem liegt darin, dass der Vermieter für die dadurch entstehenden Kosten in Vorleistung gehen muss. Für den Schlosser fallen in der Regel nur 300-400€ an Kosten an, aber die Kosten für die Räumung,  Spedition, Müllabfuhr und Lagerkosten können je nach Größe der Wohnung und Inventar schnell mehrerer tausend Euro betragen. Wenn der Mieter dann auch noch nicht solvent ist, nützt dem Vermieter der Erstattungsanspruch gegen den Mieter im Nachhinein kaum etwas.

Glücklicherweise hat der Gesetzgeber hier im letzten Jahr Abhilfe geschaffen und die Möglichkeit des sog. „Berliner Modells“ gesetzlich in § 885a ZPO verankert. Dabei werden nur die Schlösser ausgetauscht, die Sachen bleiben zunächst in der Wohnung. Für den Vermieter ist also das Kostenrisiko viel geringer und er kommt einfacher an sein Eigentum, ohne finanziell zu stark in Vorleistung gehen zu müssen.


Was, wenn der Mieter sich darauf beruft, im Fall einer Räumung keine neue Wohnung zu finden?
Gerade in Hamburg stellt dies ein wichtiges Problem dar, da es für Wohnungssuchende bekanntlich besonders schwer ist angemessenen Wohnraum zu finden.  Bei hohem Alter, Krankheit, Schwangerschaft und insbesondere

wenn angemessener Ersatzwohnraum zu zumutbaren Bedingungen nicht beschafft werden kann

kann der Mieter sich gegen die Kündigung und damit auch gegen die Räumung auf die Sozialklausel (§ 574 BGB) berufen. Auch daher sollte hier unbedingt ein Anwalt zu Rat gezogen werden.

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